Monthly Archives: June 2013

How to Plan For Future As a Student

Never have boys and girls had it so much in their own hands as now to settle some of the biggest problems in life. Although parents do much, and the public through its schools, libraries, and playgrounds are doing more for boys and girls than has ever been done before, the fact still remains that young people today are settling, largely by themselves, such great questions as what they shall be in the world, how well they shall be prepared to take their place among the world’s doers, and how they shall use the very precious hours of school, occupation and leisure.

In many a school boys and girls decide to leave for work just as soon as the law will let them. In many cases they leave before they have finished the elementary school; they drop out from the lower grades just as soon as they reach their fourteenth birthday. In some cases, real need at home makes it necessary for children to get work, any kind of work, as early as possible. But in a vast number of cases the boy or girl fancies that working in a store or office is more interesting than staying in school, So they take their plunge into working life with no idea as to where they will come out a few years later, and with no thought as to how they might fit themselves to do the work which holds out the best opportunity for them.

So eager are they to begin “life,” as they imagine, that they neglect to think about the need of fitting themselves to fill a place in which they can be of the largest use to themselves and the world. They have not as yet found out, what later they may discover to their sorrow, that more and more the world wants those who are trained to do work of a definite kind with skill and decision. Too late many a youth learns that the big opportunities come only to those who are fitted to take advantage of them; that luck plays but very little part, and purpose and preparation a very large part, in all achievement.

In other words, although many boys and girls are trying to settle their future for themselves, they have not awakened to the fact that no life-career can be settled through whim, impulse or accident. Nothing can be of greater importance to a growing boy and girl than planning for the future, and no subject needs more thoughtful, earnest consideration, and search for the best help and counsel possible. There never has been a time when such life-work planning has been so much needed as the present. All the trades, professions, and businesses are undergoing great changes. The application of science and new ways of doing things are changing even the very furniture and fixings of shop and office.

Now the boys and girls who merely drift into jobs, without aim or plan, are not building a career at all. They do not know the difference between a job and a vocation, and as they have no purpose in choosing an occupation, the chances are that they will float from one place to another, and never stay long enough in any of them to learn anything of real value in advancing them selves. As they have not really studied the facts of the different vocations they have little to guide them in choosing the kind of work they can do best. The result is that positions are taken, not because a future career is offered, but because of such trivial reasons as that the work seems easy, the companionship agreeable, the hours short, or the pay attractive.

Later on, when more serious needs and aims develop and perhaps ambitions are awakened, these young workers, once so eager to get out of school, begin to wonder if they really have been using their time and energies wisely; they ask themselves what they have been learning that will lead to something better; indeed they question now, for the first time perhaps, if they are worth much more than any other untrained youngster just out of school. Perhaps they compare their progress during the precious years of early youth with that of others who have been using all their spare hours, giving up a good deal oftentimes, so as to enable them to do something more than unskilled and everlastingly juvenile work.

Such self-comparison does good, although, unfortunately, it is made too often when opportunity after opportunity has slipped by forever. Too late do many boys and girls discover the difference between what are called “blind-alley” or dead-end jobs and vocations. A blind- alley job will employ any boy or girl, no matter how aim less he or she may be as to the future, and perhaps pay fairly well for what seems to be light work, but in such jobs nothing is gained in the way of real skill; they do not call for reading and study; in other words, they do not train, and therefore can never really lead to anything worth while. Some of the best occupations pay beginners very little, but year by year they teach something of value; each year counts and leads to something better; each year advances those who study and keep on growing and learning all that can be learned in the work. In a very few years we can see a tide gap between the prospects of those who have been blindly drifting from one unpromising job to another, and of those who have been climbing step by step to more and more skill and knowledge and power.

The years from fourteen to sixteen have been Sled the “wasted years” in industry. The thought is that these years are so precious in career-planning that it is highly important to use them as much as possible in pre paring for what we care most to do and can learn to do well. These youthful years are indeed golden, and for many decisive. They mark a turning-point in many lives.

At sixteen we should know better than at twelve or four teen how much we owe to our teachers, friends, home, books, and our surroundings.

Between the ages of fourteen and sixteen we should begin to work for the place we want to win, with resources greater than we can command during earlier years. When we finish the elementary school we have the high school before us and many special kinds of schools. In the high school we often find several courses or departments open for our. choice. In all these secondary schools we find keen interest in the colleges which high school graduates may go to, or the great professional schools, or perhaps the business openings which are ready for the bright high school graduate.

Clearly the high school is the place for trying to settle on a life-calling. In the elementary school we cannot expect final decisions to be made; but very important decisions can and should be made in the high school. In the first place, we decide at this point, whether or not we shall use our school life so as to help us form good habits of work, doing well whatever we have in hand, and finishing whatever task we have begun. Above all else, we should decide rather early in life whether we shall be drifters or strong, purposeful men and women.

Now it is a bad thing to drift, and no one takes proper advantage of his school days without some aim and desire as to the part he shall play later in the great world of effort. It does not matter if we change our ideas of what to be during early school days. Many a rough sketch is made by the architect who plans a building or by a painter who dreams of a picture. Model after model is made by the inventor and sculptor. But every discarded effort, however crude, made with a definite goal or ideal in view, is a step nearer to fulfillment.

Every normal boy or girl has some particular talent or talents, some interests more alert and some powers which are more pronounced than others. It is a large part of the business of the school and the home, and of the child, too, to find out just which are the strongest interests and capabilities of each, and to give these a chance to develop. They may not always develop. They may seem to vanish or to merge into new or hitherto undisclosed gifts and desires. This is well; again the school and home must respect these fresh signs of character and possibility and make the most of them. Destiny does not reveal all her secrets at once, but of this we can be sure: Whatever children, and grown-ups, too, put their best efforts into, is likely to be a blessing both to them and to the world, and wherever interests and talents find real scope there the most fruitful endeavors are likely to be found.

Somewhere in every program of school and home life children should be given an opportunity for discovering what their powers are. Where wise teachers and parents have done this, fewer young people become drifters and ineffective workers; schoolwork takes on new interest and the desire to prepare for a career becomes a mastering force.

For this reason the schools are undertaking new and most interesting duties. A modern school is unlike the school of a generation ago. Those who plan school buildings today must think of things which were not dreamed of twenty or thirty years ago as belonging to a school. We now make provision for school doctors and nurses, playgrounds, school shops, school kitchens, home visitors, vocational advisers, and departments which are like the businesses which we see in the world outside. All these opportunities have come in order to help boys and girls get a good start in life and to end the waste which is sure to follow a wrong start in life; they have come because it is impossible for anyone not a special student of an occupation to obtain a thorough knowledge of it.

Hundreds of new professions and trades have been or are developing because of the great strides made in transportation and invention, because of the vast growth of cities and countries, and because of world-markets and the free movement of masses of people from country to country. Years ago conditions were simpler; the neighborhood perhaps was small, and the neighbours few. Shops and factories and offices were not very far from home. Often several members of a family worked in one place, if indeed they did not own their o shop or store.

Now all this is changed. Years ago a few men made a whole shoe and a shoemaker was something more than a cobbler. To-day in the big shoe factories of Massachusetts and of the Middle West hundreds of men and women work at machines which make all the parts of a shoe, doing all the sewing, stitching, and polishing. A shoe to-day is made in from one hundred to two hundred different operations, some of them highly skilled, and all of them calling for great speed and endurance. Although a tailor may yet make a whole coat, we find in the big Rochester factories where men’s clothes are made, from fifty to sixty different persons working on one coat—some making buttonholes, some pockets, while others attend to the linings, pressing, and so on. Great bakeries are taking the place of the small neighborhood bake-shop, and dozens of different kinds of special operations are found in the large bread factories. The department store of the present day is divided into many separate departments or stores. The old-fashioned general store-keeper would find himself lost amidst the great specializations of such a store. It takes much study and ability to rise to the important positions of such a store. In the professions of law, medicine, dentistry, in most professions, indeed, the same growth of new specialties is going on.

The vocations need to be studied to-day not only from the angle of their multifarious subdivisions, but also of their effects on health and well-being. There is a mass of special literature, growing in volume, which deals with the special problems of health in the various trades.

There are studies of lead-poisoning in lead-using industries, tuberculosis in dusty trades, and fatigue and nervous breakdown in occupations which involve much monotonous repetition of the same motion of the hands or body. One must know something about these vital matters be gore deciding definitely on an employment. Often it is a matter of life or death to possess this knowledge.

Moreover, many of the best openings in all occupations are reserved for those who have taken special courses to be fitted for them. In every State there are various special schools which prepare for the skilled vocations. Nothing can be more profitable and interesting for home and school study than the catalogues of these schools. A boy or girl might start a useful home library of these educational catalogues and in using them with the teachers’ help find out where to go for the best training in a chosen work. Such knowledge is real power. It gives definite direction to ideals and desires, and opens up new channels of opportunity.

Many schools have begun to give such educational in formation as part of informal class talks and exercises; in connection with parents’ meetings; or as lessons in civics, geography, or economics. To know about the different vocations of a town or State and how best to fit for them is to get a good start on the road to citizenship.

In order to help the boys and girls of her class, a certain high school teacher made up an interesting program of class talks on the trades and professions. She stimulated the class to think about the various callings, and one question she wit to each pupil in respect to his chosen occupation probably stirred more thought and interest than any other. It was, “What service to the community do you expect to render by choosing this vocation?” Many a boy and girl had not looked upon choice of a lifework from this viewpoint. Indeed, how many people do? Yet those who go into their life-work with an ideal of service are the honored of the land.

Developing plans and ideals for future service, then, is one of the most precious activities which school and home can encourage. But the building of a life-career is not accomplished through mere wishing and dreaming. Desire does not move things. It is the physical, moral and mental energy back of any ideal which determines how far it is to be realized. In all good work, energy is one of the big items in settling success or failure.

Because the sense of masterful vitality in whatever one does is so important, all who direct the vocational interests of young people believe strongly in athletics, school gymnastics, camping, walking, simple food and plenty of rest. They know that a strong body, a rested frame and a clear brain, are needed to further a purpose in life. Very often the career which boys and girls say they wish to go into, or the work they say they wish to do, gives a good hint not only as to their intelligence, but also their physical condition. That story told by a friend of boys, Dr. John L. Elliot of New York, is much to the point: A pale, weakly-looking urchin applied for work one day at the boys’ club-house. “What kind of place would you like, my boy?” he was asked. The boy languidly answered, “Oh, I want a place where I can sit down.” Assuredly, health and achievement are pretty much tied up together. There have been striking cases, to be sure, in history where against the handicaps of a crippled body and a broken constitution great work has been done, and the world left a debtor to these wonderful men and women. A titanic will-power, a moral energy that could almost move mountains, made up for what these heroic workers lacked in health. Nature has a way of helping those who really try.

Energy, health, and good habits are needed to-day in the occupations perhaps to a degree never before called for. The whole world of business and manufacture is being swept by a movement which is called the efficiency movement. New professions are arising which aim to point out how to better ways of doing work. Mon are carefully studied at their lathes or desks, and every operation noted, whether it be in typewriting, laying bricks, or building a great machine. The result of such efficiency studies has been to make a greater demand than ever before upon clearness of brain, good eyesight and hearing, and a thoroughly sound constitution. Weak people cannot hold their own in work carried on with such efficiency demands. Stores, offices, and factories are be ginning to keep records of their employees in a way which is bound to sift out the careless and the untrained.

It is almost impossible today to “pick up” a trade or any other work and feel sure that we have mastered it. Conditions are more complicated than they were fifty years ago. Employers are too busy to teach; they expect others to attend to the teaching. In the professions, too, the standards have risen year by year. It costs more to become a doctor or lawyer to-day than ever before. To be successful in agriculture requires a scientific preparation such as an agricultural school or college alone can give. Girls who know how to cook, cater, and plan meals for hospitals, nurseries or other institutions are in great demand and are respected and paid like any other trained professional worker. Not so long ago any woman could hire out as a nurse. Today no doctor or patient cares to employ a nurse who has not been thoroughly trained in a school for nurses. Teaching requires long preparation; and positions as special teachers in drawing, cooking, sewing, manual training, playground work, stenography, and the arts and crafts are open only to those who have special qualifications, training and experience.

In time, every worth-while employment, if not all employments, will work out standards, too, and standards for any work always have the effect of shutting out those who cannot come up to them. Efficiency is the keynote of all twentieth century work, and to be efficient one must be trained. This age will not tolerate the wasteful methods or the crude devices of the past. Expensive machines only a few years old are often discarded for new and more costly machines which promise better, more economical, and larger results. Every day there is a vast casting aside of old methods and material. Workers unable to meet the new demands are unfortunately thrown out, too. There is keen rivalry for every good position. The in efficient, the weak and the aimless are not wanted.

Because the world is making such drastic demands upon the coming workers, every thoughtful tan and woman, every, teacher and reflecting parent, is planning ways to fit the children for the life and needs of this new century. The new opportunities for special education in our towns and cities have come in order to help boys and girls to find their places in the work of the world and to hold them successfully.

This is the explanation for vocational schools, industrial classes, school shops, and courses in business, millinery, cooking, printing and the like. The colleges and universities are adding vocational courses to their programs. We now have college schools of journalism, commerce, engineering, dentistry, and domestic science, in addition to those of medicine, law and theology. The list of special schools is a long one. In time it will be much longer. Evening schools offer special training facilities for those who are already at work.

All these new schools are intended to meet the new efficiency standards of the age. They are intended for boys and girls with energy, ambition and ideals to amount to something in the world; they show that education has taken on a new and broader meaning. They clearly indicate that hand-education is as valuable to hand-workers as book-education is to those whose tools are books. Any one is educated who keeps growing in sympathy, skill and power through work, no matter what the work may be. The world belongs to those who grow. Youth’s greatest duty is to grow into efficient manhood and womanhood.

Planning for a Life-Career

Impressions Insufficient

In the preceding article we saw how the great changes in methods and organization of work make it impossible, without special study of the matter, to know much about the work of the world. Many people talk about the vocations with out special knowledge; they think about them in terms of an earlier time, for a few years often make a vast difference in the growth of a vocation. Perhaps they have only impressions based on scattered observations. They may have a fair notion of what the vocation means, but impressions are insufficient for purposes of vocational choice.

Special Study of the Vocations

Today, therefore, a number of specially qualified men and women are spending time in looking into the conditions of various occupations. Their published studies not only tell about the wages, hours, and other facts of vital interest as regards certain employments, but, what is of equal importance, they show, among other things, whether the work lasts through the year, or keeps the workers busy for only a few months and then lays them off. We have lately begun to learn something about seasonal employments, as they are called, and we now know that occupations which may pay high wages for only a few months in the year are not nearly so desirable as those which pay smaller wages but are steady and keep the workers busy throughout the year. In other words, it is well to know what a worker receives not in weekly but rather in annual income, for living expenses go on just the same whether work is temporary or steady.

Public authorities, like city and state boards of health, and sometimes official commissions specially created for the purpose are investigating employments to find out if they involve any peculiar dangers to health, or life, or morals. Public conscience has grown sensitive to the matter of physical and moral risk in employments and many new laws have been passed in the States for the purpose both of safeguarding workers and of shutting out those too young or otherwise unfit.

Protecting the Young Worker

In the State of Massachusetts, for example, and there are other States with like laws which protect young workers against injury, no child under sixteen is allowed to work at or near such dangerous machinery as circular saws and many other kinds of swift-moving tools ‘which cut or stamp. We have seen many pathetic cases of young persons who have lost fingers, arms or legs, while working near belts or sharp knives moved by steam or electric power. The country does not want to see its children injured in this way, and consequently factories are visited by officials to ensure that the laws for safeguarding workers are enforced. The laws in some States go further and try to keep children from working in places which are not helpful to character-building, for the country is anxious to guard its future citizens against moral as well as physical dangers So children may not work in tobacco factories, liquor stores or billiard rooms. Bad companions are as dangerous as buzz-saws.

What Sort of Associates?

Every home also should ask the question, What sort of associates will our boy and girl find in this or that trade and business? Are the workers and the surroundings probably such as will strengthen ambition, good habits, and efficiency? No wage or salary, however high, can ever make up for the bad results of low associations. People everywhere are so convinced of this truth that laws have been passed, and many more laws are sure to be passed in the near future, to keep children away from occupations which debase character.

Work and Citizenship

We have good reason to rejoice in the growing desire to make the vocations help in the building of good citizens. The more people care about such things, the better for all the vocations as well as for the workers in them But many years will go by before we really do this duty well, the duty of lilting every occupation into a force for good citizenship. One sure way of helping to bring this about is to disseminate more and more knowledge as to what the vocations return to their workers in the way of ennobling influence.

Keeping Up to the Standards of a Profession

Everybody respects the doctor because in this profession the standards are so high. The doctor must think of his patient’s welfare above everything else, and must sacrifice himself, if need be, to this end. In the interests of their profession doctors have lost their lives, and in so doing have shown other physicians how to save lives. We have all read of the heroism of those doctors who discovered the cause of that awful scourge, yellow fever. In order to prove that this disease was carried by insects, two surgeons allowed themselves to be bitten by mosquitoes which had previously bitten yellow fever patients. The result was that the disease was communicated to the doctors, who died, but their work enabled us to build the Panama Canal under healthful conditions. So we know that a ship-captain or a locomotive engineer must think of the passengers first, no matter what the danger may be. We expect sympathy in the teacher and integrity in the lawyer and business man, and where these qualities are missing, all the world condemns those who fall below the traditions and standards of the profession.

Now it is not too much to hope that the standards of all the work which the world carries on will in time be raised, so as to make fine men and women of all workers. It is only because we do not use our imaginations that so much of the work done now falls below this ideal. But we are making great advances in this direction. In some localities, it is true, very young children are still allowed to work long hours without any schooling or play time, and there seems to be little or no anxiety felt as to the kind of men and women they will become. But gradually the world is becoming convinced that boys and girls who are not given a chance to fit themselves through study and play with strength and happy ambitions for the life-career, turn out to be very poor citizens.

Protecting the Worker From Excessive Fatigue

Tired men and women with no strength left to improve their minds and lives, doing any odd jobs for a living, or working long hours for very little pay, cannot be expected to help their country to develop as it should. Because we gave so little thought to such matters in the past, many a promising life has been destroyed. It is quite likely that we cannot do away with all danger and fatigue no matter how much caution we use; but of this we can be sure, the more attention we give to the matter, the greater will be the number of people we can save, and the smaller will be the number of accidents arid cases of disease.

Overwork

Work is done nowadays under such pressure, speed and turmoil that some constitutions unable to bear the strain break down. Hours of labor have, therefore, been shortened, night-work prohibited to women and children in many industries, and laws passed to help ease the burden under which people toil. Moreover, enlightened employers have been trying on their own account to lessen the strain by providing rest periods and recreation for their workers. In some countries, very back ward in humane ideas, men and women, and children too, may be seen laboring like beasts of burden, and apparently there is no concern felt by those above them as to how the work affects them, or how the nation as a whole deteriorates when it suffers the overwork and the breakdown of its people.

The New Ideal of Citizenship

But in all advanced countries there is now keen interest in the industrial life of the people and a growing desire to keep the workers in sound health, fit for their work and civic duties. Because of this new ideal of citizenship, friends of boys and girls are concerned that the work they go into shall be safe and proper; they are concerned, too, that each youth shall be given the opportunity to make the most of what it may be in him to be. This indeed is a great goal for any nation to set before it—that every child shall be encouraged to make the most of life, to be efficient, to be .self-supporting, and useful to self, family, and society. But even to approach the goal is not easy, unless the public, the home, the school, and even the boy and girl themselves, all help.

How Boys Used to Start in Life

In the Middle Ages parents who wanted their boy to have a good start in life and an assured future would bind him over to some employer, apprentice him, as it was called, and pay a good round sum of money for this opportunity of their boy to learn a trade. The boy must then be “indentured,” that is, settled with the employer for seven years, living with the master in his home during all that time, working with him in the shop, and other wise being wholly under his control. If the boy ran away, the authorities must look for him and bring him back, where punishment was sure to await him. But boys did not run away much. Although the discipline was very severe, in some instances altogether too harsh, boys were glad to be able to learn a trade so that some day they might be masters on their own account with apprentices to help them. Without such apprenticeship there was little or no opportunity for the boy to amount to anything. There were no schools or libraries or boys’ or girls’ clubs in those days.

The Apprentice Under the Guild System

The masters, or master-craftsmen, and the professional men, too, of the Middle Ages were organized into powerful bodies called guilds and no one could enter any occupation without the preliminary seven years of service. No wages were paid to the apprentice, although the master provided food, clothing, lodging, and medical care. But when the apprenticeship period was over the youth who, after an examination by a committee of the guild, showed proficiency, was admitted after a trial term to the full privileges of the craft. These privileges often carried important civic rights such as free citizenship and the right to travel from place to place. In the course of time the apprenticeship system broke down, and when steam-power, labor-saving machinery and great factories began to take the place of water-power or human power, and of hand labor, small shops and home manufacture over a century ago, the system of indenture almost entirely disappeared.

One result of the disappearance of the apprenticeship system is to make it difficult for the average boy to learn a trade or profession.

Necessity of Special Preparation Today

Only in rare cases to-day, usually in the very large stores or industries, do employers make any provision for training their employees for the higher and better-paid positions. To the well-known professions beginners must come prepared, usually through a special school. The young lawyer cannot as of old prepare for the bar by reading in a lawyer’s office. A law-school education must come before the practice of law, and usually a stiff bar examination after completing the law school course. So the doctor, dentist, engineer, accountant, and teacher must go through a preliminary course of training. In this way the professions are raising their standards and weeding out the unfit. In a growing number of retail stores there are classes in salesmanship. Several public and privately supported schools are also carrying on such classes. Even the selling of goods over the counter has become skilled work. In fact, although natural ability forwards one in almost any vocation, special preparation is now necessary in addition to ability.

Little Chance for Special Preparation in Office or Shop

The disappearance of apprenticeship opportunity is indeed a serious loss, for without some such provision it is only by accident that certain abilities ever see light. It is better for people, while young, to find out so far as possible what they can best do rather than to try them selves out in the precious years when they have already started life’s work. Besides, the employer is not anxious to try out too many employees. There is little time for instruction in a busy store, office or shop. What usually happens, therefore, is that the average boy or girl is put to some simple task and kept there everlastingly. Seldom is there any effort made to find out what they could do better. So long as they do reasonably well, the one thing they are engaged to do, they keep their place. If they fail they go. Neither they nor their employer can tell anything about their real merits, about the possibilities of their success in some other task or department.

In other words, the vocations to-day expect their beginners to know something and amount to something at the very outset. They have their minimum requirements. Those who fall below are not wanted. Also a large mass of work to-day is done in such subdivided manner as to require very little real intelligence, skill or preparation. This work is done by those who have not put forth the effort, or have not had the opportunity, to make special preparation for something better. Such subdivided work rarely calls for anything more than ordinary attention and health. As anybody can do it, thousands who should really be doing more profitable and stimulating work rush in.

Subdivided Work and Unskilled Workers

A word, however, is needed in connection with such un-educative, low-skill or no-skill employments. The world needs the product even of these industries; this work must be done. The question is not who shall do it—but under what conditions and on what terms shall it be done, so as not to hinder the growth of the workers? This question is important to the employer as well as to society.

The world is now beginning, though too slowly, to be sure, to scrutinize every occupation on the side of its advantages and disadvantages. It is a blessing, of course, to be well occupied. But we are learning to regard misemployment as hardly less of an evil than is no employment. That is, we are asking of every occupation not only questions as to hours, wages, seasons, and dangers, but also what its educational and moral influences are. It is a growing belief that all necessary work can be carried on in a way which shall be helpful instead of hurtful to its workers.

The Telegraph Messenger Boy

For instance, we are familiar in this country with the small figure of the blue-uniformed telegraph messenger boy. Delivering messages is useful work, but only very recently have we begun to examine into the nature of this work and the future of messenger boys. We have learned that messenger service is conducted by us in a way which is often injurious to the health and even citizenship of the boys. In some German cities messenger boys are better looked after. There they receive instruction and are generally better safeguarded than is the case with us. England several years ago woke up to the fact that it was employing many boys as telegraph messengers in connection with the post office, which in that country carries on the telegraph business, too, and that when the boys reached the age of sixteen or seventeen and were too old for mere errand work, the government simply dismissed them and took on other younger boys. The English people became alarmed over this waste, and the messenger service has been changed so as to allow the boys, while in their early period of messenger employment, to fit themselves for permanently useful life-career.

Nine Thousands Occupations

In the United States census of occupations we find something like three hundred different general occupations listed, and with the more important subdivisions the list grows to over nine thousand. Nor does this list by any means exhaust the number. If we turn to the letter “8” in the census index we find the following names of occupations:

  • Silker
  • Singer
  • Sizer
  • Skeiner
  • Skidder
  • Skimmer
  • Skinner
  • Skiver
  • Slasher
  • Slater
  • Slaughterer
  • Sleever
  • Slipper
  • Slitter
  • Slubber

Studying a Vocation

We have chosen only a few of a long list. How many people can tell to what operations they refer?

How shall we study an occupation? How can the school and the home help boys and girls to get a knowledge of the vast and complicated field of employment? In the next article will be told something about the interesting experiments which schools and other organizations are making in the field of life-career help to boys and girls. Here we shall consider some of the more general matters in the study of a vocation. We may roughly divide all vocations into four classes:

  1. Those which require no special knowledge or manual skill.
  2.  Those which require manual skill.
  3. Those which require knowledge.
  4. hose which require both knowledge and skill.

The Training for a Vocation

The knowledge referred to here is that which is specially related to the vocation in question. For example, a teacher of English must have a knowledge of grammar, composition, and literature and must know how to teach. When once we find out what training and talent a vocation demands, we are in a position to inquire further as to ways in which workers can obtain their training for it. Have all beginners the chance to master the whole occupation? Is there any systematic instruction in the shop or office? Is there any provision for apprenticeship, and if so, for how many apprentices? If we find no provision for training inside the vocation, the question arises as to how and where the training may be had. And in connection with this question is the no less important one as to where the best training opportunities are.

Qualifications for a Vocation

Not only must we study the vocation from the side of training, but we must regard its demands and conditions. What qualities are demanded—physical strength, endurance, accuracy, memory, dexterity, courtesy, caution, alertness, taste, imagination? The list is endless, as we proceed to analyze what each employment calls for in the way of qualifications, yet such a list every student of vocations must make an effort to draw up, as it helps in measuring one’s self in the light of the world’s requirements.

We have to consider, moreover, whether the work is in itself unwholesome or carried on in unhealthful places; whether it involves any peculiar physical or nervous strain; and whether it checks or promotes intelligence and good citizenship.

How to Discuss the Vocations

We have now gone over a number of points which we do well to keep in mind when we talk about any particular occupation. Many more might be suggested. A good method for any teacher or parent who is interested in planning with boys and girls their future life-career, would be to take a number of familiar employments, say the trades and businesses of the neighborhood, and try to make a catalogue of all the good points and bad points of each. One boy might be asked to make a list in two columns of all the pros and cons he can collect about the corner grocery store, another might bring in a simple study of what a lawyer, doctor and civil engineer need to know. Perhaps two boys, or the class in two divisions, might debate some occupation, one from the side of its advantages, and the other from the side of its disadvantages. Boys and girls who throughout the last years of school life engage in such discussions will go forth into the world with unusual preparation.

Vocations a Life-study

Enough has now been said to show how very hard it is to take the real measure of the varied occupations of mankind. They are indeed a life-study. They cannot safely be guessed at. If children have in the past stumbled into success and somehow made their way as strong men and women to the front, let us remember that no one writes biographies of those who do not succeed and of those who only half-succeed when a fuller life might have been theirs. Business and industry have been changed by the progress of the last twenty years. It is infinitely harder now than ever before to drift or stumble into success; there are too many ambitious and well- schooled boys and girls coming out of our training schools to-day for a drifting boy or girl to have a good chance to get ahead.

Know Thyself

Much has been said in this article about the careful study of the points in each vocation. One reason for suggesting this is the help such study gives to a proper understanding of one’s self. We really study ourselves when we study the vocations, and unless we do study ourselves we cannot plan intelligently for the work we desire. We should know ourselves in order to find our selves. What are we good for? What can we do well? Why do we fall behind in this or that task? What habits of ours enable us to turn out a good piece of work? What habits trip us up?

The difficulties in planning for a life-career come not only from scant knowledge about the occupations but also from a failure to face ourselves as we really are. One benefit to a young person in talking about the work of the world and its demands with his parents and teachers lies in the clearing up of his ideas in regard to his own character and in the fresh inspiration he receives to enrich his natural equipment with the powers which the world prizes.

How to Use Online Stores for Your Benefits

Most of the young generation today loves shopping. It feels so exciting doing it, but roaming around in search of our stuffs feels simply boring sometimes. However, the technologies have provided us with some awesome facilities on which we don’t really have to make several efforts. Online shopping is a great thing that provides you comfort and availability in an easy manner. Anyone would love to select his favorite stuff from a market sitting in his air conditioned bedroom rather that to be spoiled in pollution and roaming all around for the thing that you can get with only one click. People love going through online stores because they have no problem in checking some websites for marketing.

Now days, online stores is offering products for free shipping and with attractive discount offers and also some great ideas of coupon which make the stuff more efficient and worth eye catching. According to the stats online, sales are increasing day by day with a great speed. Online shopping has become a trend of today’s shopping arena. It has been a great source of income and an unexpected profit for online retailers. It was found that one of the famous online stores made more money per day than a shopping mall does in a months. That is really outstanding and amazing success story of online stores. People are always interested in getting any particular thing in as lower cost as possible.

In an online store, you will get awesome deals and unbelievable stuff on very less prices. The new trend of coupon is a hit trend, as it sometimes provides with an unbelievable discount to the regular customers. The concept of coupon codes used online is liked by a big number of audiences. There is no point as to why the crowd should not turn towards online market. In a survey way back in 2004 it was found that products of online store costs 6 to 16 percent lesser which is getting better and better day by day. 71 percent of the shopping people say that they got more discount on the same stuff online as compared to the shops and retailers. Online Store leads you to more saving of money as well as time and it is rightly so, because no matter how fast you can deal in a market or a shopping mall.

However, online shopping will be faster than your fastest outside. Sitting on the internet also gives you the facility of comparing the product of two stores. A recent research has given a fact that online shopping is an environment friendly task. It reduces your fuel consumption. It helps you to reduce air pollution. It saves tree indirectly as catalogs and pamphlets are not used for the promotions of online trade. You don’t have to hop around from shop to shop for a single comparison between the two; you can do it easily in front of your computer screen. An online stores also gives you power to share your experience regarding the product you have used. Moreover, you can check the reviews of different users on the product that you are going to buy and have a good idea regarding its best price and quality offered. This helps you to decrease the error of buying, what I mean is that you buy exactly what you want no mistakes are done. As an online retailer too, you have several ways to go for your publicity. You can go for ads of your product on different on various web sites. That helps you to generate traffic on your store that ultimately results in increasing your sales.

How to Make Money Online By Running an Online Business

Running an online business is one of the most efficient ways to make money online. Although there are many ways to earn an income through the Word Wide Web, nothing beats the efficiency of business.

In order to earn money through the internet, one must dedicate most of his time and effort in it. Otherwise, you will never earn even a single cent. Some people chose to become a freelancer while others entered the online marketing. On the other hand, some people managed to earn large amount of money by establishing their own online business. How do they do it?

Build a Website

The first step in establishing an online business is to create a website. A website will serve as your business’s identity on the World Wide Web. Without it, a business will never be called an online business.

When creating a website, people must think of a domain which will serve as the website address. They may opt to choose a certain phrase that will describe the business in two to three words or they may use a single name for their business or company. Whatever the domain is, it should have two characteristics: business related and easy to remember. The second characteristic is the most important element of a domain. What is a website if customers cannot easily keep it in mind?

As you create the website, you will meet a phase when you need to choose a theme for your website. Although this step emphasizes the site’s appearance, web developers still take this element seriously. Appearance is one way to catch people’s attention and this is one part of a website that must be used efficiently. People’s interest is the main target of any website’s theme. However, the theme should always be in accordance with what the business offers. For instance, if the business sells kids’ toys, then, it is only proper that you choose a theme suitable for what your business sells. When it comes to kids’ toys, a website should have a fancier look than a website that sells pets.

Add Content

The second step to run an efficient online business is to add content to the newly built website. Content is what makes your site reliable. The first content that online business owners should add is a description of what their site is. The content should introduce the purpose of the site and what products or services the site offers. Of course, one content is not enough. Online business owners should prepare a couple of contents and they should always be ready to update the site regularly.

There are two pages needed once the website runs: the homepage and the about page. The homepage will serve as introduction of the business. This is the very first content that visitors will be able to see once they access the website. It should contain an interesting description about the site and what visitors can expect from the site. On the other hand, the about page must contain information that will prove how reliable the site is. Credibility and history of the site must be on this page. With these two pages, visitors will never find it difficult to check the purpose and credibility of the site.

Add Products or Services

The last step to start earning money online is to add the products for selling or services to offer. Online businesses do not merely focus on selling; rather, some businesses offer services for their customers. Remember that products and services are the elements that make income. In other words, online business owners should focus on promoting them to visitors. By following these tips, you will be able to make a lot of money online without any hassle.